The Molybdenum Age: Tales of the Great Molybdenum Rush of ’34

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In , the Dominion Oil Company built a refinery. In , it was rebuilt and operated by the Bushnell Oil Company, which became Imperial Oil one year later. The company laid claim to the boast of being the largest oil refinery in the British Empire. Refinery technology improved and processes produced hydrocarbon mixtures that were suitable for petrochemical feedstock.

However, the principal products continued to be kerosene, lubricating oils, waxes, gas and fuel oils and candles. In , the Ford Motor Company of Canada was established and, by , about 50, motor vehicles were traversing Canadian roadways. Southwestern Ontario sits on a huge salt bed that lies about to metres below the surface. Salt is a key ingredient in many industrial chemicals, including chlorine, sodium carbonate, liquid sodium for use in coolants and hydrochloric acid.

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Additional innovations included the development of fluid catalytic cracking and the application of the processes of polymerization, isomerization and alkylation to improve petroleum products — especially as the demand for top-grade products escalated during the Second World War. The general chemical laboratory at the Imperial Oil refinery at Sarnia, circa Isoprene — the monomer that forms the basis of natural rubber — had been isolated as early as the s and by , scientists in both Britain and France had discovered that isoprene could be polymerized. In the following decades, groups in Germany, Russia and the US experimented with various forms of synthetic rubber but natural rubber — cheap and abundant — remained in common use.


Then, on Dec. Singapore also fell to the Japanese, placing 90 percent of natural latex rubber-production capacity under control of the Axis powers. Suddenly, the Allied war effort was in jeopardy. In February , Polymer Corp. It was located near the St. Clair river water for cooling but also close to the only refinery that could supply the requirements for petroleum cracked gases and take back residual hydrocarbons.

Other refineries supplied benzene and coal for the generation of steam and power. Second World War hostilities ended in September A radically altered world was ready to embrace evolving technological advances. The highly efficient Great Lakes shipping network became the conduit for exporting these products.

DuPont built a polyethylene plant, while C-I-L constructed an ammonia and fertilizer plant. By , Polymer Corp. The s and s were, in essence, the golden age of Chemical Valley, says West, with Sarnians boasting the highest standard of living in Canada. In keeping with its contribution to the Canadian economy, Polymer Corp. Then, an oil embargo by Arab petroleum-producing states shook global markets. Sarnia adapted to the new challenges.

Several companies: Polymer Corp.

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Union Carbide also built a polyethylene plant, DuPont doubled the capacity of its polyethylene plant and Shell Chemical started to produce isopropyl alcohol and polypropylene plastic, Stephenson wrote. Aerial view of the petrochemical plant at the Imperial Oil refinery in Eventually, however, by the late s to s, refineries in Sarnia began to close due largely to increased automation and outsourcing. A TransAlta pipeline bringing ethylene from Alberta was shut down. This, says West, was another major catalyst, causing Dow Chemical in Sarnia to permanently lock the factory gates. In order to stop further decline in the petrochemical industry, West and fellow board members of the Canadian Chemical Producers Association realized in the early part of the new millennium that action was needed.

There is a nice infrastructure ecosystem there, not only plants but maintenance and testing companies. Today, the Sarnia-Lambton Petrochemical and Refining Complex still has 19 petrochemical plants that continue to produce products made from crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids and ethane that is brought in via pipeline. There are just too many drivers that affect it — too many people who rely upon the products that come out of that industry. Sarnia may have been the epicentre of the petrochemical industry but Shawinigan, Que.

Under the rule of the [[House of Capet Capetian]] kings, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France. Bartholomew '' s Day massacre]] that killed thousands of French Protestants. This king made several improvements to the capital during his reign: he completed the construction of Paris '' first uncovered, sidewalk-doted bridge, the [[Pont Neuf]], built a Louvre extension that connected it the [[Tuileries Palace]], and created the first Paris residential square, the Place Royale, now [[Place des Vosges]].

The king would end his life in the capital, assassinated in a narrow street by [[Les Halles]] marketplace in After Richelieu '' s death in , it was the renamed as the [[Palais-Royal]].

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To demonstrate that the city was safe from attack, the king had the [[City walls of Paris city walls]] demolished and replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become the '''' [[Boulevards of Paris The grands boulevards Grands Boulevards]] '''' of today. Paris was the financial capital of continental Europe, the primary European centre of book publishing, fashion and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods.

On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the [[Invalides]], acquiring thousands of guns, and [[storming of the Bastille stormed the Bastille]], a symbol of royal authority. In , as the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined, along with more than 16, others throughout France , during the [[Reign of Terror]].

The first railway line to Paris opened in , beginning a new period of massive migration from the [[Provinces of France provinces]] to the city. After months of blockade, hunger, and then bombardment by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on 28 January On 28 March, a revolutionary government called the [[Paris Commune]] seized power in Paris. The city was also bombed by Zeppelins and shelled by German [[Paris Gun long-range guns]].

None of the children came back. On 17 October , an unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against the curfew led to violent confrontations between the police and demonstrators, in which at least 40 people were killed, including some thrown into the Seine. Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined the students, and the movement grew into a two-week general strike. Supporters of the government won the June elections by a large majority.

The [[May events in France]] resulted in the break-up of the University of Paris into 13 independent campuses. It was highly controversial, and it remains the only building in the centre of the city over 32 storeys high. It reached 2.

After many modifications, the new area, named the [[Grand Paris Metropolis of Grand Paris]], with a population of 6. The city is spread widely on both banks of the river. The overall climate throughout the year is mild and moderately wet.

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Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently in both seasons. Snow falls every year, but rarely stays on the ground. The city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulation. However the city is known for intermittent abrupt heavy showers. The city was not granted municipal autonomy by the National Assembly until The current mayor is [[Anne Hidalgo]], a socialist, elected 5 April Each arrondissement has a number of members depending upon its population, from 10 members for each of the least-populated arrondissements 1st through 9th to 36 members for the most populated the 15th.

The elected council members select the mayor. Sometimes the candidate who receives the most votes citywide is not selected if the other candidate has won the support of the majority of council members. The current council is divided between a coalition of the left of 91 members, including the socialists, communists, greens, and extreme left; and 71 members for the centre right, plus a few members from smaller parties. The number of deputy mayors in each arrondissement varies depending upon its population.

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There are a total of 20 arrondissement mayors and deputy mayors. The largest part of the budget 38 percent went for public housing and urbanism projects; 15 percent for roads and transport; 8 percent for schools which are mostly financed by the state budget ; 5 percent for parks and gardens; and 4 percent for culture. The main source of income for the city is direct taxes 35 percent , supplemented by a percent real estate tax; 19 percent of the budget comes in a transfer from the national government. It includes the City of Paris, plus the communes or towns of the three departments of the inner suburbs [[Hauts-de-Seine]], [[Seine-Saint-Denis]] and [[Val-de-Marne]] , plus seven communes in the outer suburbs, including [[Argenteuil]] in [[Val d '' Oise]] and [[Paray-Vieille-Poste]] in [[Essonne]], which were added to include the major airports of Paris.

By its basic competencies will include urban planning, housing and protection of the environment. Though the Metropole has a population of nearly seven million persons and accounts for 25 percent of the GDP of France, it has a very small budget; just 65 million Euros, compared with eight billion Euros for the City of Paris. It is composed of members representing the different communes within the region. The Socialists had governed the region for seventeen years. The regional council has members from the Union of the Right, 66 from the Union of the Left and 22 from the extreme right National Front.

For the executive, the two chief officers each have their own official residences, which also serve as their offices. It supervises the units of the [[National Police France National Police]] who patrol the city and the three neighbouring departments. It is also responsible for providing emergency services, including the [[Paris Fire Brigade]]. In addition to traditional police duties, the local police monitors the number of discount sales held by large stores no more than two a year are allowed and verify that, during summer holidays, at least one bakery is open in every neighbourhood.

Vans of CRS agents are frequently seen in the centre of the city when there are demonstrations and public events. The traditional [[kepi]]s of the gendarmes were replaced in with caps, and the force modernised, though they still wear kepis for ceremonial occasions. Violent crime is relatively rare in the city centre. These demonstrations, usually managed by a strong police presence, can turn confrontational and escalate into violence.

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In modernising its infrastructure through the centuries, Paris has preserved even its earliest history in its street map. The high residential population of its city centre makes it much different from most other western global cities. They were scheduled for completion in or , but as of January construction had not yet begun, and there were questions in the press about the future of the project.

Pei]] Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from and before, 20 percent were built between and , and only 18 percent of the buildings remaining were built after that date.

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Paris averages 1. Forty-one percent were women, and 29 percent were accompanied by children. Fifty-six percent of the homeless were born outside France, the largest number coming from Africa and Eastern Europe. To the north of the city, they are grouped mainly in the [[Seine-Saint-Denis]] [[department France department]], and to a lesser extreme to the east in the [[Val-d '' Oise]] [[department France department]]. It is slightly smaller than the Paris Region. Retrieved 22 February The principal reasons were a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between and Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, high rent, the [[gentrification]] of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families.