French Letters Virginias War

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They saw the Ohio River area as important to their need for a quick route to New Orleans, but they also know the economic advantages to be gained by having a strong position there. The only clashes of any size were at Petitcodiac in and at Bloody Creek near Annapolis Royal in , other than the campaigns to expel the Acadians ranging around the Bay of Fundy , on the Petitcodiac and St.

Following the death of Braddock, William Shirley assumed command of British forces in North America, and he laid out his plans for at a meeting in Albany in December His plan, however, got bogged down by disagreements and disputes with others, including William Johnson and New York's Governor Sir Charles Hardy , and consequently gained little support. Neither of these men had as much campaign experience as the trio of officers whom France sent to North America. Governor Vaudreuil had ambitions to become the French commander in chief, in addition to his role as governor, and he acted during the winter of before those reinforcements arrived.

Scouts had reported the weakness of the British supply chain, so he ordered an attack against the forts which Shirley had erected at the Oneida Carry.

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In the Battle of Fort Bull , French forces destroyed the fort and large quantities of supplies, including 45, pounds of gunpowder. They set back any British hopes for campaigns on Lake Ontario and endangered the Oswego garrison, already short on supplies. French forces in the Ohio valley also continued to intrigue with Indians throughout the area, encouraging them to raid frontier settlements.

This led to ongoing alarms along the western frontiers, with streams of refugees returning east to get away from the action. The new British command was not in place until July. Abercrombie arrived in Albany but refused to take any significant actions until Loudoun approved them, and Montcalm took bold action against his inertia.

He built on Vaudreuil's work harassing the Oswego garrison and executed a strategic feint by moving his headquarters to Ticonderoga, as if to presage another attack along Lake George.

Jack Woodville London, French Letters, Virginia's War, Reading

With Abercrombie pinned down at Albany, Montcalm slipped away and led the successful attack on Oswego in August. In the aftermath, Montcalm and the Indians under his command disagreed about the disposition of prisoners' personal effects.

The Europeans did not consider them prizes and prevented the Indians from stripping the prisoners of their valuables, which angered the Indians. Loudoun was a capable administrator but a cautious field commander, and he planned one major operation for He left a sizable force at Fort William Henry to distract Montcalm and began organizing for the expedition to Quebec.

He was then ordered to attack Louisbourg first by William Pitt, the Secretary of State responsible for the colonies.


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The expedition was beset by delays of all kinds but was finally ready to sail from Halifax, Nova Scotia in early August. In the meantime, French ships had escaped the British blockade of the French coast, and a fleet awaited Loudoun at Louisbourg which outnumbered the British fleet. French irregular forces Canadian scouts and Indians harassed Fort William Henry throughout the first half of In January, they ambushed British rangers near Ticonderoga. In February, they launched a raid against the position across the frozen Lake George, destroying storehouses and buildings outside the main fortification.

In early August, Montcalm and 7, troops besieged the fort, which capitulated with an agreement to withdraw under parole. When the withdrawal began, some of Montcalm's Indian allies attacked the British column because they were angry about the lost opportunity for loot, killing and capturing several hundred men, women, children, and slaves.

The aftermath of the siege may have contributed to the transmission of smallpox into remote Indian populations, as some Indians were reported to have traveled from beyond the Mississippi to participate in the campaign and returned afterward. Modern writer William Nester believes that the Indians might have been exposed to European carriers, although no proof exists.

Vaudreuil and Montcalm were minimally resupplied in , as the British blockade of the French coastline limited French shipping. His schemes to supply the colony inflated prices and were believed by Montcalm to line his pockets and those of his associates.

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A massive outbreak of smallpox among western Indian tribes led many of them to stay away from trading in The disease probably spread through the crowded conditions at William Henry after the battle; [58] yet the Indians blamed the French for bringing "bad medicine" as well as denying them prizes at Fort William Henry. Montcalm focused his meager resources on the defense of the St. Lawrence, with primary defenses at Carillon, Quebec, and Louisbourg, while Vaudreuil argued unsuccessfully for a continuation of the raiding tactics that had worked quite effectively in previous years. Newcastle and Pitt joined in an uneasy coalition in which Pitt dominated the military planning.

He embarked on a plan for the campaign that was largely developed by Loudoun. He had been replaced by Abercrombie as commander in chief after the failures of Pitt's plan called for three major offensive actions involving large numbers of regular troops supported by the provincial militias, aimed at capturing the heartlands of New France. Two of the expeditions were successful, with Fort Duquesne and Louisbourg falling to sizable British forces.


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The third invasion was stopped with the improbable French victory in the Battle of Carillon , in which 3, Frenchmen defeated Abercrombie's force of 18, regulars, militia, and Indian allies outside the fort which the French called Carillon and the British called Ticonderoga. Abercrombie saved something from the disaster when he sent John Bradstreet on an expedition that successfully destroyed Fort Frontenac , including caches of supplies destined for New France's western forts and furs destined for Europe.

Abercrombie was recalled and replaced by Jeffery Amherst , victor at Louisbourg. The French had generally poor results in in most theaters of the war. The new foreign minister was the duc de Choiseul , and he decided to focus on an invasion of Britain to draw British resources away from North America and the European mainland. The invasion failed both militarily and politically, as Pitt again planned significant campaigns against New France and sent funds to Britain's mainland ally of Prussia, while the French Navy failed in the naval battles at Lagos and Quiberon Bay.

In one piece of good fortune, some French supply ships did manage to depart France and elude the British blockade of the French coast. British victories continued in all theaters in the Annus Mirabilis of The victory was made complete in ; the British did suffer a defeat outside Quebec City in the Battle of Sainte-Foy , but they prevented the arrival of French relief ships in the naval Battle of the Restigouche while armies marched on Montreal from three sides.

Amherst granted his requests that any French residents who chose to remain in the colony would be given freedom to continue worshiping in their Roman Catholic tradition, to own property, and to remain undisturbed in their homes. The British provided medical treatment for the sick and wounded French soldiers, and French regular troops were returned to France aboard British ships with an agreement that they were not to serve again in the present war. Most of the fighting ended in continental North America in , although it continued in Europe between France and Britain.

The notable exception was the French seizure of St. General Amherst heard of this surprise action and immediately dispatched troops under his nephew William Amherst , who regained control of Newfoundland after the Battle of Signal Hill in September General Amherst also oversaw the transition of French forts to British control in the western lands. The policies which he introduced in those lands disturbed large numbers of Indians and contributed to Pontiac's Rebellion in The war in North America officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on 10 February , and war in the European theater was settled by the Treaty of Hubertusburg on 15 February The British offered France the choice of surrendering either its continental North American possessions east of the Mississippi or the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique , which had been occupied by the British.


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Faden, Charing Cross, Novr. Visit the Timeline featured in Documents from the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, to for more information on the Revolutionary War. Visit the Web guides for links to a wide variety of information on the Revolutionary War. Military Battles and Campaigns contains maps of major military conflicts including troop movements, defensive structures and groundworks, roads to and from sites of military engagements, campsites and local buildings, and topography and vegetation.

The Rochambeau Map Collection contains forty manuscript and twenty-six printed maps, as well as a manuscript atlas used by Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau when he was commander in chief of the French expeditionary army during the American Revolution. Use the zoom views to see battle plans, surveys, and more up close. July British Col.

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William Johnson arrives at the Great Carrying Place to build a fortified storehouse. Work was already underway led by Capt. Robert Rogers. Phineas Lyman takes over to complete construction of Fort Lyman which would later become Fort Edward. Begins work on a fortification to later be named Fort William Henry. Ephraim Williams and Mohawk King Hendrick.

A later engagement would be called the Battle of Bloody Pond. August , Fort William Henry. Monro finally surrenders.