The Great Green Anole

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Analyses of this data set infer a well-supported phylogeny that reinforces and clarifies the adaptive and biogeographic history of anoles Fig. First, our phylogenomic analysis reaffirms previous molecular and morphological studies indicating that similar anole habitat specialists have evolved independently on each of the four large Greater Antillean islands.

Second, our analyses suggest a complex biogeographic scenario involving a limited number of dispersal events between islands and extensive in situ diversification within islands. The closest relatives of Anolis occur on the mainland and the phylogeny confirms the existence of two colonizations, one into the southern Lesser Antilles and the second producing the diverse adaptive radiations throughout the rest of the Caribbean.

Within this latter clade, anoles initially diversified primarily on the two larger Greater Antillean islands although Puerto Rico also seems to have been involved before subsequently undergoing secondary radiations on all of the islands and eventually returning to the mainland, where this back-colonization has produced an extensive evolutionary radiation. The phylogeny also indicates that very few inter-island dispersal events occurred in Greater Antillean evolution.

Rather, the Greater Antillean faunas, renowned for the extent to which the same ecomorphs are found on each island, are primarily the result of convergent evolution Anolis ecomorphs derive from convergent evolution and not from frequent inter-island migration. Using conserved primer pairs distributed across the genome of A. The genome sequence of A. Filling this important reptilian node with a sequenced genome has revealed derived states in each major amniote branch and has helped to illuminate the amniote ancestor.

However, the tree of sequenced reptilian genomes is still extremely sparse, and the sequencing of additional non-avian reptiles would be necessary to fully understand how typical A. In addition to the utility of the A. With their invasions of and subsequent radiations on Caribbean islands, anoles provide a terrestrial analogue to stickleback and cichlid fish, which underwent adaptive evolution in separate aquatic environments.

Just as genomic research in sticklebacks has deepened the study of aquatic ecological speciation, a large-scale genomic phylogenetic survey of the Caribbean anoles would be an opportunity for detailed study of adaptive evolution in a land animal 26 ; in particular because anole genomes contain large numbers of active mobile elements that we speculate could form substrates for exaptation of novel regulatory elements.

A full description of methods, including sample collection, sequencing, assembly, anchoring, mass spectrometry and all sequence analysis, can be found in Supplementary Information. Sumida, S. Hillier, L. Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution.

Nature , — Warren, W. The genome of a songbird. Dalloul, R. Multi-platform next-generation sequencing of the domestic turkey Meleagris gallopavo : genome assembly and analysis. PLoS Biol.

Fujita, M. Unexpected homogeneity in GC content and divergent isochore structure in the Anolis genome. Genome Biol. Benton, M. Paleontological evidence to date the tree of life. Axelsson, E.

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Comparison of the chicken and turkey genomes reveals a higher rate of nucleotide divergence on microchromosomes than macrochromosomes. Genome Res. Burt, D. Origin and evolution of avian microchromosomes. Potrzebowski, L. Chromosomal gene movements reflect the recent origin and biology of therian sex chromosomes.

Organ, C. Evolution of sex chromosomes in Sauropsida. Losos, J. Gorman, G. Hellsten, U. The genome of the Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis.


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Science , — Bininda-Emonds, O. The delayed rise of present-day mammals. Shedlock, A. Phylogenomics of nonavian reptiles and the structure of the ancestral amniote genome.

Carolina anole - Wikipedia

Natl Acad. USA , — Kordis, D. Transposable elements in reptilian and avian sauropsida genomes. Novick, P. The evolutionary dynamics of autonomous non-LTR retrotransposons in the lizard Anolis carolinensis shows more similarity to fish than mammals. The evolution and diversity of DNA transposons in the genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis. Furano, A. L1 LINE-1 retrotransposon diversity differs dramatically between mammals and fish. Trends Genet. Duret, L. A new perspective on isochore evolution. Gene , 71—74 Viets, B.

Sex-determining mechanisms in squamate reptiles. Mann, K. The chicken egg white proteome. Proteomics 7 , — Farinazzo, A. Chicken egg yolk cytoplasmic proteome, mined via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries. A , — Lowe, C. Endangered species hold clues to human evolution.

6 Care Tips for Green & Brown Anoles - Pet Reptiles

Williams, E. Harvard Univ. Press, Colosimo, P. Widespread parallel evolution in sticklebacks by repeated fixation of Ectodysplasin alleles. Download references.

Leapin’ lizards: Green anole is not a true chameleon

Generation of the A. We would also like to thank the David and Lucile Packard Foundation for their early support of anole genomics, R. Andrews for her advice on lizard egg biology, C. Hickman and B.

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Gaffney and L. Virnoche for assistance with figure and text preparation. Heiman and S. Heiman anchored the genome. All authors participated in data discussion and interpretation. See separate excel files for Supplementary Tables and PDF kb. The table contains a translation table of NCBI scaffolds and accession numbers to Broad scaffold numbers. XLS kb. This licence does not permit commercial exploitation, and derivative works must be licensed under the same or similar licence.

Reprints and Permissions. The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals. Nature , — doi Download citation.