Vitamins 101

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Niacin: an old drug rejuvenated. Current Athersclerosis Reports, Jan;11 1 Effectiveness of food fortification in the United States: the case of pellagra. Park, Y.

And here are the important minerals for maintaining good health.

American Journal of Public Health, May;90 5 Jacobson, T. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Apr;85 4 Pantothenic Acid a. Vitamin B5 : This vitamin is important in food metabolism and helps synthesize neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, red blood cells, and more. Toxicity is virtually nonexistent, and while B5 deficiency is fairly rare it tends to accompany severe malnutrition neurologic symptoms such as burning feet may crop up Pantothenic acid in health and disease. Tahilliani, A. Weis Center for Research, Danville, Pennsylvania. Vitamins and Hormones, ; Phosphorus : Keep bones and teeth prosperous with phosphorus , a macromineral that primarily builds and protects those choppers and your skeleton.

Phosphorus is also a component of DNA and RNA , helps convert food into energy, and aids in shuttling nutrients to the organs that need them Dietary phosphorus in bone health and quality of life. Takeda, E. Nutrition Reviews. While the kidneys dislike phosphorus in excess, acute poisoning with phosphorus is virtually nonexistent. On the flipside, rare cases of phosphorus deficiency can lead to anemia, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, rickets in children , and numbness and tingling in the legs Hypophosphatemic rickets.

Jagtap, V.

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Department of Endocrinology, Seth G. Medical College, Parel, Mumbai, India. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mar;16 2 What You Need: mg How to Get It: Foods abounding in phosphorus include all-things dairy, like milk mg per cup , yogurt mg per cup and cheese mg per ounce.

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  • Not a dairy lover? Consider salmon mg per 3 ounces , eggs mg per large egg , beer mg per 3 ounces , chicken mg per 3 ounces , and—get this—carbonated cola drinks 40 mg per 12 ounces. Yang, Q.

    The Ultimate Guide to Vitamins and Minerals

    Archives of Internal Medicine, Jul 11; 13 Alongside sodium, potassium is also an MVP in balancing fluids by helping the kidney save fluids when we are dehydrated or excrete fluids that are in excess. Potassium is thought to lower blood pressure and benefit bones, too Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Whelton, P. Short-term potassium deficiencies often from prolonged vomiting or diarrhea may cause fatigue, muscle weakness and cramps, bloating, abdominal pain, and constipation — thanks but no thanks Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia.

    Greenlee, M. Evans, K. Riboflavin Vitamin B2 : Flavor ful ribo flav in definitely has street cred. This water-soluble B vitamin helps convert food to fuel, encourages iron absorption in the intestines, and also enhances the health of hair, skin, muscles, eyes, and the brain Riboflavin vitamin B-2 and health. Powers, H. And some research suggests that riboflavin may be effective at combating migraines , too Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis.

    A randomized controlled trial. Schoenen, J. Neurology, Feb;50 2 Average intake of riboflavin and clinical findings. Lo, C. The Medical Journal of Australia, Nov 10; 10 While enormous intake of riboflavin may turn your pee bright yellow a phenomenon called flavinuria , this side effect is harmless. Selenium : Selenium is a smooth-operator of thyroid hormone regulation, and also acts as an antioxidant Selenium and human health. Rayman, M. Lancet, Mar 31; Chronic excess of this trace mineral usually from supplements is known to cause nausea, GI discomfort, and hair and nail brittleness, so supplement selenium in moderation Acute selenium toxicity associated with a dietary supplement.

    MacFarquhar, J. Melstrom, P. Archives of Internal Medicine, Feb 8; 3 What You Need: 55 mcg How to Get It: Brazil nuts mcg per six kernels are sky-high in selenium, and shrimp 34 mcg per shrimp , crabmeat 41 mcg per 3 ounces , salmon 40 mcg per 3 ounces , enriched noodles 38 mcg per cup , beef 16 mcg per 3 ounces , and pork 35 mcg per 3 ounces have a decent slice of it too. Sodium Chloride a. The rest of us call it table salt.

    Before shaking it up, know that sodium chloride is found in high quantities in most meals, snacks, and even drinks. While it is essential for fluid balance, nerve signal transmission, muscle contractions, digestion, and blood pressure, it is possible to have too much of this savory mineral set Salt and hypertension: is salt dietary reduction worth the effort? Frisoli, T. The American Journal of Medicine, May; 5 Excess sodium intake can raise blood pressure above normal limits, increasing the risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease down the road Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride.

    Graudal, N. Since the average daily diet already includes salt waaaay in excess, consider low-salt alternatives like olive oil instead of butter , unsalted nuts in favor of salted ones, and fresh fruit! What You Need: mg of sodium; mg of chloride How to Get It: Sodium chloride can be soaked up from white bread mg per two slices , pickles mg per 1 spear , hot dogs 1, mg per one wiener—hot diggity dog!

    Thiamin a. Vitamin B1 : Another member of the water-soluble B pack, thiamin helps with food metabolism and boosts the health of hair, skin, muscles, and the brain A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin e and its derivatives.

    The Ultimate Guide to Vitamins and Minerals

    Lonsale, D. Thiamin e : The Spark of Life. Sub-cellular Biochemistry, ; Toxicity has never been observed, and though thiamin deficiency also known as beriberi is rare in the U. Symptoms affect the cardiovascular, nervous, muscular, and gastrointestinal systems in a variety of ways Thiamine in nutrition therapy. Sriram, K. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, Feb;27 1 Vitamin A a. Though known as being good for vision, vitamin A has many other vital tasks: It encourages red and white blood cell production and activity, keeps the immune system fit and blood vessels healthy, helps rebuild bone, regulates cell growth and division, and may reduce the risk for some cancers The role of retinoic acid in tolerance and immunity.

    Hall, J. Immunity, ;35 1 Overview of retinoid metabolism and function. Blomhoff, R. Journal of Neurobiology, Jun;66 7 Retinoids, variations of Vitamin A, are also used in medications to treat various skin diseases and acne Systemic retinoids for chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer in high-risk patients. Marquez, C. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, Jul;9 7 Though infrequent in the U. Vitamin A deficiency also plays a role in diarrhea and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases in developing countries Vitamin A metabolism and adipose tissue biology.

    Frey, S. Nutrients, Jan;3 1 So make like Bugs Bunny and crunch on some carrots for high doses of beta-carotene, which is readily converted to vitamin A once digested The importance of beta-carotene as a source of vitamin A with special regard to pregnant and breastfeeding women. Strobel, M.

    Vitamins and Minerals 101

    European Journal of Nutrition. Nutrition and Food Security, Gronau, Germany. Spinach or carrots can supply significant amounts of vitamin A as assessed by feeding with intrinsically deuterated vegetables. Tang, G. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vitamin B6 a. Vitamin B6 helps out with the production of serotonin, a hormone that plays a hand in sleep, appetite, and mood Pyridoxine effect on synthesis rate of serotonin in the monkey brain measured with positron emission tomography.

    Hartvig, P. Journal of Neural Transmission, ; 2 It also assists with manufacturing red blood cells and steroid hormones, influences cognitive and immune function, and is linked to reducing the risk of heart disease The effect of vitamin B6 on cognition. Malouf, R. Cochrane Database System Review, ; 4. Vitamin B6: a molecule for human health?